Turning is an engineering machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non rotary tool bit, describes a helical tool path by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. The tool’s axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they may be along some set of curves or angles, but they are essentially linear (in the non mathematical sense). Usually the term “turning” is reserved for the generation of external surfaces by this cutting action, whereas this same essential cutting action when applied to internal surfaces (that is, holes, of one kind or another) is called “boring”. Thus the phrase “turning and boring” categorizes the larger family of (essentially similar) processes. CNC turning machines are used for computer processing of parts when it comes to a little larger series production .
Most CNC milling machines (also called machining centers) are computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z axis. This extra degree of freedom permits their use in diesinking, engraving applications, and 2.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. When combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter, it also significantly improves milling precision without impacting speed, providing a cost efficient alternative to most flat-surface hand engraving work .
CNC milling machines are also used when it comes to a little higher circulation products. Sometimes a semi finishes on the machines, and sometimes the whole part is made from start to finish.
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